Monitoring at MacMillan Wharf, Provincetown, MA

Monitoring at MacMillan Wharf, Provincetown, MA
Marine Invasive Species (MIS) Monitoring at MacMillan Wharf, Provincetown, MA.

Sunday, May 20, 2018

Floating Dock Videos

Bugula, Grateloupia, and Bryopsis:
Capturing Moving Targets with Greater Clarity 

During the summer of 2016, I tried my hand at making videos of species on the docks that are moving in time with the wave action.  The live observation of some species just didn't seem to be realistically captured by a static image.  I was surprised at the detail that was shown by a video in comparison to a photo, especially on a day when the water was choppy.  Two of these videos featuring the invasive bryozoan Bugula neritina, the invasive Asian red alga Grateloupia turuturu, and the native green alga Bryopsis plumosa are shown below.  Bugula, which occurs at relatively high frequency on the docks, and Grateloupia, which is seen at low frequency, have been consistent parts of the floating dock community since I started monitoring Provincetown.  

Bryozoa and Algae at the Waterline
Floating dock species growing along the waterline.  The purple bryozoan Bugula neritina (center) is flanked by the bryopsid green alga Bryopsis plumosa (left) and the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (right).  A single solitary ascidian Styela clava with open siphons is seen in the center background.  MacMillan Pier, 2016. 

Asian Red Alga Waving with the Water Action
Another group of the same species focusing on the movement of the Asian red alga Grateloupia turuturu. The soft, leafy structure of the fronds is displayed by its flexibility with the rhythmic surge of the water.  The alga is growing among the purple Bugula neritina and green Bryopsis plumosa.  Red and green algae compete with tunicates, bryozoa, mussels, and hydroids for space along the waterline.

Since taking these videos, I searched YouTube for videos of these species and found several outstanding microscopic videos of feeding bryozoan zooids and bryozoan reproduction and development.  These terrific videos are definitely worth viewing and are listed below the Links.

MIS Branching Bryozoan:  Bugula neritina
Branching Bryzoan and Red Alga:  Bugula neritina and Neosiphonia harveyi.  Includes more information about Bugula and a photo of Grateloupia turuturu from MacMillan Wharf.
Mathieson, A.C., Dawes, C.J., Pederson J., Gladych R.A. and Carlton J.T.   The Asian red seaweed Grateloupia turuturu (Rhodophyta) invades the Gulf of Maine. 
Coast Watch 2012:   Marine Invasives Overview.  Shows all 11 species on the MIMIC list including Bugula neritina and Grateloupia turuturu
Floating Dock Bryopsid Green Alga:  Bryopsis plumosa.

Short Video of Bugula Zooids:  Briozous (Bugula neritina).  From Eric Badosa.  Microscopic close-ups of feeding zooids featuring upbeat music.
Excellent Video of Feeding Bugula Zooids:  Bugula.  From Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory.  Silent Video.
Educational Video Showing Development of Embryos:  Bugula neritina - the life cycle of a marine bryozoan.  From Alvaro Migotto.  Labeled, fast motion, microscopic live action featuring pleasant background music.
Sperm Release in a Bryozoid:  Through the tips of Tentacles.  From Alvaro Migotto.  Fascinating video showing ciliated tentacles and release of spermatozoa from the tips. 

Thursday, May 10, 2018

Microscopic Photo Acccessory

Cell Phone Macro Lens Attachment

In a previous post, I wrote about the advantages of using jeweler's loupes in the 20-40X range to identify species when anatomical structure cannot been determined with the naked eye.  Since then, I always have taken along my 20X and 30X lenses to view the microstructure of colonial ascidians, bryozoans, red algae, and small crustaceans.  One of the disadvantages of the jeweler's loupe is that, although they are terrific for identifying and recording, they do not provide satisfactory in-focus images for documentation. 

Last fall, I had the opportunity to try a macro lens mobile phone attachment for my iPhone 6s, the olloclip Macro for 6/6s, which offers a 7x, 14x, and 21x lens adapter.  It proved valuable for producing quality in-focus images worthy of cataloging with the caveat that numerous, multiple images need to be taken to get suitable photos.  The focal plane is fairly narrow, so the camera needs to be held at the exact distance from the object, and any movement will give an out-of-focus image.  Ideally, structures with three dimensional features will have in-focus features in the center and out-of-focus features around the periphery.  The seawater around the subject also needs to be shallow so the camera lens can get close enough to the object to obtain focus such as in a shallow tray.  It is best to have the subjects as close to the surface as possible without disrupting the smooth surface level. 

Olloclip Macro Lens Attachment
These images show the Olloclip Macro lens attachments for the iPhone 7/8 Series.  The adapter has a 2 piece 7x and 14x (7x + 2x) lens on one side, and a single 21x objective lens on the other side (a single 15x Macro lens is available for the iPhone X).  Note that the case must be removed in order to place the adapter on the camera lens.   These lenses were useful for approximating images possible by a stereoscopic light microscope.  

Macro Images of Botrylloides violaceus
Macro images of Botrylloides violaceus collected from the floating docks at MacMillan Pier, November, 2017 showing chains of orange zooids against a contrasting dark background.  Numerous incurrent siphons and several shared excurrent siphons are evident. Also shown are orange ampullae of the blood vessel system in the common tunic.  Images were edited with Photoshop by cropping and slightly adjusting brightness and contrast.

Enlarged Macro Images of Botrylloides violaceus
Enlarged macro images of Botrylloides violaceus collected from the floating docks at MacMillan Pier.  In the upper photo, the solid orange endostyle can be discerned on a few zooids.  These photos were more cropped and resized, giving an enlargement effect. 

Olloclip Macro Lens for iPhone available from Apple or online retailers:  Apple adapter for iPhone 7/8. Adapter for iPhone 6/6s being phased out.  A 10x + 15x macro lens pair also available as part of a 4-in-1 lens.
Olloclip Macro Lens for iPhone X:  Fisheye + Macro 15x Lens
Review of the Olloclip 4-in-1 Wide-Angle/Macro Lens:
Olloclip Macro Lens Introduced:  Macro 3-in-1 lens.
Helpful Monitoring Accessories:  Jeweler's Loupe for Specimen Identification.
Tunicarium:  Microscopic images of Botrylloides violaceus.